Mount Bromo is located in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java, a mountainous highland ranging between 1,000 to 3,676m above sea level.
Declared a national park in 1982, it covers in excess of 50,000 hectares and contains the highest mountain in Java, Mount Semeru (3,676m), four lakes and 50 rivers as well as the Tengger Sand Sea, which is protected since 1919. It is the only conservation area in Indonesia that has such a sand sea. This unique feature covers an area of 5,250 hectares at an altitude of 2,100m.
The western sea of sand with Mt Semeru in the background
The Tengger volcanic complex consists of a new caldera of five volcanoes inside a larger and older caldera. The five volcanoes: Mount Bromo (2,329m), Mount Batok (2,470m), Mount Kursi (2,581m), Mount Batok (2,661m), and Mount Widodaren (2,650m) are surrounded by the vast Tengger Sand Sea, which is in turn surrounded by the steep crater wall of the larger Tengger Caldera.
Both Bromo and Semeru (in the background) are active and dispersing volcanic clouds
Further south in the national park is the Semeru volcanic complex or Jambangan group.
Early morning sunlight
The vegetation of the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park consists of four main types: Highland Forest, Alvin Forest, Casuarina Forest and Grassland. There are about 600 species of flora in the park, including Javanese Edelweiss that grows in high altitudes and about 200 species of endemic orchids.
There are about 130 species of birds and 22 species of mammals living in the park, including Java Rusa (a deer), Wild Pig, Silver Leave Monkey, Leopard and Marbled Cat.
Sea of Sand
The area around the park is inhabited by the Tengger people, one of the few significant Hindu communities remaining in Java. The local religion is a remnant from the Majapahit era and therefore quite similar to that on Bali but with even more animist elements.
Jeeps crossing the Sea of Sand
Today the Tengger people derive their income mainly from small scale farming and from the visiting tourist that come to enjoy the stunning sunrise overlooking Mount Bromo and explore the hiking trails of the national park.